Production Design & Development
Cougar's design tools for amplifiers, microwave amplifiers, mixers, IQ products, oscillators, detectors, switches, and integrated assemblies include advanced software tools for analyzing all circuit parameters. Cougar's design engineers layout each circuit using modern CAD tools, then assemble and fully RF-characterize the circuit. Therefore, we fully understand each new design's complete RF and mechanical characteristics before releases the new product to production.
Amplifier Circuit Design
We design virtually all of our amplifiers for both excellent stability and cascadability. Gain flatness is maintained to typically ±0.2 dB or better, which improves cascaded flatness. Each module has internal power supply decoupling to minimize power supply cross talk and fine-grain ripple. All DC biasing circuits use temperature compensating bias to reduce DC current drift to typically ±0.3% from -55°C to +85°C case temperatures. The nominal bias on the majority of the models is 15 volts, with many models biased in the 5- to 8-volt range. In addition, most 15-volt models have options for internal wire bond changes that provide full output power capability and 3rd order intercept performance when biased a 12-volts. Cougar uses an ultra broadband circuit technique to extend the usable frequency limit down to 100 kHz on some models.
Cougar's individual circuit designs are flexible and designed for easy combining. For example, model AR2589 represents a method for cascading two stages of gain in a single TO-8B package, which provides +28.3 dBm output power and 20.5 dB gain over the 100 to 2500 MHz bandwidth. The model AS6043 (see Table I), also a two-stage model, typically produces +15.5 dBm output power and 15 dB gain from 10 to 6000 MHz.
Microwave Amplifier Circuit Design
Each Cougar microwave amplifier is designed using Lange couplers to give a balanced amplifier design covering the 6 to 20 GHz frequency range. The nominal bias on the majority of the models is 12 volts, while others are designed to operate in the 5- to 8-volt range. One, two, or three stage designs are available to address customer needs. Cougar's hermetic CougarPakT is the standard package for microwave amplifiers.
VCO Circuit Design
Cougar's VCO circuits are designed using silicon bipolar transistors and silicon varactor diodes to give the best overall phase noise performance and lowest settling time. Oscillators covering 50 MHz to 9 GHz use a fundamental oscillator approach while oscillators covering the 9 to 20 GHz range use a doubling oscillator approach. Each oscillator is designed to work over -55°C to +85°C.
Mixer Circuit Design
Cougar's Mixer product line uses Schottky diodes and transformers in either double or triple balanced designs covering DC to 20 GHz. In the Mixer section of the Product Guide, Cougar's Hi-Rel MixerPakT is a seam-sealed hermetic package containing fired in glass feed-thrus, which prevent flux contamination for military or space applications. To make specifying mixers for military or space applications easier, Cougar has developed a screening flow based on MIL-DTL-28837. Triple balanced designs will have pre burned-in diodes and do not receive burn-in at the module level.
Detector Circuit Design
Cougar's designs incorporate either planar germanium tunnel diodes or silicon Schottky diodes with video amplifiers and comparators to provide analog or threshold detector functional blocks. The tunnel detector provides excellent temperature stability in a simple, unbiased configuration while the biased or unbiased Schottky designs are offered for the most demanding temperature environments. Precision video components offer low-level detection with low output offset voltage and drift and exhibit moderate pulse response times. High speed video models provide fast pulse response at generally lower dynamic range due to a higher offset and drift penalty. All designs focus on flat frequency response, low VSWR and good temperature stability in multiple package options.
Whether the goal is improved subclutter visibility (SCV), increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), or reduced gap between the 1/f corner and the carrier, today's design engineers are increasingly more aware of component phase noise and its contribution to masking or clouding carrier signals. Engineers increasingly specify decreased component phase noise to achieve continually greater demands on system sensitivity.
Cougar's catalog components are designed to achieve the lowest possible phase noise. Initial design characterization now includes phase noise performance so design engineers can confidently select the correct components that meet all system requirements. For custom designs, Cougar selects circuits and elements to achieve specific phase noise requirements.
Many Cougar data sheets now include actual phase noise performance. And, Cougar's Sales and Applications Engineering can provide actual performance data on other components.
All substrates are manufactured using sputtered or plated thin-film gold metallization with a titanium-tungsten adhesion layer and tantalum nitride resistors, which provide top performance and low drift. We typically use as-fired Alumina, but some higher power applications require the thermal characteristics of polished or Tape-Cast BeO. We design resistor patterns to maintain power densities far below maximum ratings. By heat-treating the substrates, we can ensure long-term stability. The thin-film process provides precise geometries and precision RF alignment, which supports superior unit to unit matching and reduced lot to lot variation.
Custom Integrated Assemblies
Integrated assemblies designed by Teledyne Cougar are engineered for optimal system performance and reliability. Our component expertise provides a solid foundation for each integrated assembly we design. Designers select Teledyne Cougar as their first choice for integrated solutions to meet performance, reliability, and cost goals. Cougar's integrated assemblies combine multiple functions and reduce design and manufacturing challenges. Cougar's integrations can include analog and mixed analog-digital designs of hybrid, MMIC, lumped element and mixed configurations. Whether the application is industrial, military or space, Cougar's experienced engineering staff provides integrated solutions to solve component interface difficulties, reduce size, meet schedule deadlines, and exceed all of your performance goals. To maximize performance and save on overall design space, contact our technical sales staff to discuss your design blocks and Cougar's solutions.
Cougar products are available in a variety of package types including the standard TO-8, the larger TO-8B, various SMA connectorized housings, several flatpacks, both the SMTO-8 and SMTO-8B surface mount packages, the 10-pin gullwing flatpack, and two Power Pack designs for optimum heat sinking. The CougarPakT is a standard hybrid package offered in a various sizes including versions for 20 GHz operation, and a mixer version. The CougarPakT uses standard SMA connectors but we can accommodate custom form-fit packaging needs including SMP connectors. We also offer a variety of packages styles and sizes for customer selected die including a unique 70 mil hermetic package.
Note that some products are only available in selected packages. For instance, the ACH107 and ARH356 amplifiers come in TO-8H and TO-8BH packages, respectively, where the "H" suffix indicates a taller TO can. Call our technical sales staff to discuss the various package options available.